Ashton Flinders (M.S. 2009). "Gravity Anomalies of the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Implications on the Shield Evolutions of Kauai and Ni`ihau (submitted to JGR). Crustal density structure of the northern Hawaiian islands of Kaua`i and Ni`ihau are determined by inverting gravity anomalies from on, and offshore surveys. The inversions reveal dense bodies that proably mark the magmatic centers of these volcanoes. The bodies are not centered beneath the islands therefore substantial mass wasting must have occurred to alter the shape of the islands from when they were active to present-day. Flinders M.S. Thesis 2009.
See also: Garcia, M, G. Ito, D. Weis, D. Geist, L. Swinnard, T. Bianco, A Flinders, B. Taylor, B. Appelgate, C. Blay, D. Hanano, I. Nobre Silva, T. Naumann, C. Maerschalk, K. Harpp, B. Christensen, L. Sciaroni, T. Tagami, and S. Yamasaki (2008), Widespread secondary volcanism near Northern Hawaiian Islands, Eos, 89 (52), 542-543.